Since the invention of computers or machines, their ability to perform different tasks went on growing exponentially. People have built up the power of computer systems in terms of their diverse working domains, their increasing speed, and reducing size with respect to time.
A branch of Computer Science named Artificial Intelligence pursues creating the computers or machines as intelligent as human beings.A part of Computer Science named Artificial Intelligence seeks after making the PCs or machines as canny as people.
As per to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, it is “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, particularly intelligent computer programs”.
Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.
AI is accomplished by studying how human brain thinks, and how people learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the outcomes of this study as a basis of developing intelligent software and systems.
While exploiting the power of the computer systems, the curiosity of human, lead him to wonder, “Can a machine think and behave like people do?”
Thus, the development of AI began with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans.
To Create Expert Systems − The systems which display intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain, and advice its users.
To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines − Creating frameworks that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans.
Artificial intelligence is a science and innovation based on disciplines such as Computer Science, Biology, Psychology, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Engineering. A major thrust of AI is in the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, for example, reasoning, learning, and problem solving.
Out of the following areas, one or multiple areas can contribute to build an intelligent system.
The programming without and with AI is different in following ways −
|Programming Without AI||Programming With AI|
|A computer program without AI can respond the specific questions it is meant to solve.||A computer program with AI can address the generic questions it is meant to solve.|
|Modification in the program leads to change in its structure.||AI programs can absorb new modifications by putting exceptionally independent pieces of information together. Thus you can modify even a minute piece of information of program without influencing its structure.|
|Modification isn't fast and simple. It may prompt to affecting the program adversely.||Quick and Easy program adjustment.|
In reality, the knowledge has some unwelcomed properties −
AI Technique is a way to organize and utilize the knowledge efficiently in such a way that −
AI techniques elevate the speed of execution of the complex program it is outfitted with.
AI has been prevailing in various fields such as −
Gaming − AI plays crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machine can think of large number of possible positions dependent on heuristic knowledge.
Natural Language Processing − It is conceivable to connect with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans.
Expert Systems − There are some applications which coordinate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users.
Vision Systems − These systems comprehend, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example,
A spying aeroplane takes photographs, which are utilized to figure out spatial information or map of the areas.
Doctors use clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.
Police use computer software that can recognize the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.
Speech Recognition − Some intelligent systems are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, and so forth
Handwriting Recognition − The handwriting acknowledgment software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It can perceive the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text.
Intelligent Robots − Robots are able to perform the undertakings given by a human. They have sensors to identify physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. In addition, they are capable of learning from their mistakes and they can adjust to the new environment.
Here is the history of AI during 20th century −
|Year||Milestone / Innovation|
Karel Čapek play named “Rossum's Universal Robots” (RUR) opens in London, first utilization of the word "robot" in English.
Foundations for neural networks laid.
Isaac Asimov, a Columbia University alumni, coined the term Robotics.
Alan Turing presented Turing Test for assessment of intelligence and published Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Claude Shannon published Detailed Analysis of Chess Playing as a search.
John McCarthy coined the term Artificial Intelligence. Demonstration of the first running AI program at Carnegie Mellon University.
John McCarthy invents LISP programming language for AI.
Danny Bobrow's dissertation at MIT demonstrated that computers can understand natural language well enough to solve algebra word problems correctly.
Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT constructed ELIZA, an interactive problem that carries on a dialogue in English.
Scientists at Stanford Research Institute Developed Shakey, a robot, furnished with locomotion, perception, and problem solving.
The Assembly Robotics group at Edinburgh University constructed Freddy, the Famous Scottish Robot, capable of utilizing vision to locate and assemble models.
The first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle, Stanford Cart, was manufactured.
Harold Cohen created and exhibited the drawing program, Aaron.
Major advances in all areas of AI −
The Deep Blue Chess Program beats the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov.
Interactive robot pets become commercially available. MIT shows Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses feelings. The robot Nomad explores remote regions of Antarctica and locates meteorites.