While studying artificially intelligence, you have to know what intelligence is. This section covers Idea of intelligence, types, and components of intelligence.
The capacity of a system to calculate, reason, perceive relationships and analogies, learn from experience, store and retrieve information from memory, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, use natural language fluently, classify, generalize, and adapt new situations.
As described by Howard Gardner, an American developmental psychologist, the Intelligence comes in multifold −
|Linguistic intelligence||The capacity to talk, recognize, and use mechanisms of phonology (speech sounds), syntax (grammar), and semantics (meaning).||Narrators, Orators|
|Musical intelligence||The capacity to create, communicate with, and understand meanings made of sound, understanding of pitch, rhythm.||Musicians, Singers, Composers|
|Logical-mathematical intelligence||The capacity of utilization and understand connections in the absence of action or objects. Getting complex and abstract ideas.||Mathematicians, Scientists|
|Spatial intelligence||The capacity to perceive visual or spatial information, change it, and re-create visual pictures without reference to the objects, develop 3D pictures, and to move and rotate them.||Map readers, Astronauts, Physicists|
|Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence||The capacity to utilize total or part of the body to solve issues or fashion products, control over fine and coarse motor skills, and manipulate the objects.||Players, Dancers|
|Intra-personal intelligence||The ability to distinguish among one’s own feelings, goals, and motivations.||Gautam Buddhha|
|Interpersonal intelligence||The capacity to perceive and make distinctions among other people’s feelings, beliefs, and intentions.||Mass Communicators, Interviewers|
You can say a machine or a system is artificially intelligent when it is furnished with at least one and at most all intelligences in it.
The intelligence is intangible. It is composed of −
Let us go through all the components briefly −
Reasoning − It is the set of processes that empowers us to provide basis for judgement, making decisions, and prediction. There are broadly two types −
|Inductive Reasoning||Deductive Reasoning|
|It conducts specific perceptions to makes broad general statements.||It begins with a general statement and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion.|
|Even if all of the premises are true in an announcement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false.||If something is valid of a class of things in general, it is also valid for all members of that class.|
|Example − "Nita is a instructor. Nita is diligent. Therefore, All teachers are studious."||Example − "All women of age above 60 years are grandmothers. Shalini is 65 years. Therefore, Shalini is a grandmother."|
Learning − It is the activity of gaining information or skill by studying, practising, being educated, or experiencing something. Learning improves the awareness of the subjects of the study.
The ability of learning is controlled by humans, some animals, and AI-enabled systems. Learning is classified as −
Auditory Learning − It is learning by listening and hearing. For example, students listening to recorded sound lectures.
Episodic Learning − To learn by remembering sequences of events that one has witnessed or experienced. This is direct and orderly.
Motor Learning − It is learning by exact movement of muscles. For example, picking objects, Writing, and so on.
Observational Learning − To learn by watching and imitating others. For example, child tries to learn by impersonating her parent.
Perceptual Learning − It is figuring out to recognize stimuli that one has seen before. For example, recognizing and classifying objects and situations.
Relational Learning − It includes figuring out to differentiate among various stimuli on the basis of relational properties, rather than absolute properties. For Example, Adding ‘little less’ salt at the time of cooking potatoes that came up salty last time, when cooked with adding say a tablespoon of salt.
Spatial Learning − It is learning through visual stimuli such as pictures, colors, maps, etc. For Example, An individual can create roadmap in mind before actually following the road.
Stimulus-Response Learning − It is figuring out to perform a specific behavior when a certain stimulus is present. For example, a dog raises its ear on hearing doorbell.
Problem Solving − It is the procedure in which one perceives and tries to arrive at a desired solution from a current situation by taking some path, which is obstructed by known or unknown hurdles.
Problem solving also incorporates decision making, which is the process of selecting the best suitable alternative out of multiple alternatives to reach the desired goal are available.
Perception − It is the way of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information.
Perception presumes sensing. In humans, perception is helped by sensory organs. In the domain of AI, perception mechanism puts the data acquired by the sensors together in an important way.
Linguistic Intelligence − It is one’s ability to use, comprehend, talk, and compose the verbal and written language. It is significant in interpersonal communication.
Humans see by patterns whereas the machines see by set of rules and data.
Humans store and recall information by patterns, machines do it via searching algorithms. For example, the number 40404040 is easy to remember, store, and recall as its pattern is straightforward.
Humans can figure out the total object even if some part of it is missing or distorted; whereas the machines can't do it correctly.