Ajanta Caves were worked from the Basalt aggregated in the form of igneous stones. These stones were amassed because the volcanic eruptions occurred long back. The laborers cut the rock with appropriate arranging as splits also occurred during the process.
The laborers carved pillars, rooftops, and symbols out of the stones. Alongside this, painting work was also done. Travelers can enter the site through a gateway worked between cave 15 and cave 16. The gateway is decorated with elephant and snake.
Most of the caves are in the form of Viharas having dormitories appended to them. At the back side of the caves, a sanctuary was assembled and each sanctuary has a statue of Lord Buddha in the center. Many other deities are also carved on the pillars and close to the large statue of Buddha.
These caves were worked during the second phase and were moved from Hinayana sect to Mahayana sect. Due to all these highlights, they came to be known as monasteries. The center of the viharas are in the form of a square having rectangular passageways on each side. There are number of little cells which can be entered through the doors made up of wood.
The worship halls, also known as Chaitya Grihas, was worked in the structure a square shape. The halls are divided into a naïve and two aisles. The hall consists of a stupa and an aspe. A stupa is a hemispherical structure having the remains of Buddhist monks and nuns while apse is a semi-circular structure having a vault or semi-dome.
People performed circumambulation around the stupa which is encircled by pillars. Some caves have large entrances having windows through which light entered the caves. The development of the worship halls depicted the architecture of Christian church but they didn’t have any house of prayer.